A-level Index



(a) 2 marks Paper 1

(a) Define the term ‘opportunity cost’. [2]​

 (a) Define the term ‘leadership’. [2]

(a) Define the term ‘motivation’. [2]

(a) Define the term ‘workforce planning’. [2]

(a) Define the term ‘contract of employment’. [2]

(a) Define the term ‘redundancy’. [2]

(a) Define the term ‘training’. [2]

(a) Define the term ‘customer (market) orientation’. [2]

 (a) Define the term ‘market segmentation’. [2]

 (a) Define the term sampling’. [2]

(a) Define the term ‘outsourcing’. [2]

(a) Define the term ‘productivity’. [2]

(a) Define the term ‘job production’. [2]

(a) Define the term ‘venture capital’. [2]

(b) 3 marks Paper 1

(b) Explain one reason why many new businesses fail in their first year of operation. [3]

(b) Explain one advantage that a business in the public sector may have that a business in the private sector may not. [3]

(b) Explain one benefit to a business of having motivated employees. [3]

(b) Explain one benefit to a business of workforce planning. [3]

(b) Explain one advantage to an employer of using a person specification. [3]

(b) Explain one advantage to employees of having a contract of employment. [3]

(b) Explain one benefit to a business of training employees. [3]

(b) Explain one limitation of niche marketing. [3]

(b) Explain one reason why a business might segment its market [3]

(b) Explain one advantage to a business of using primary (field) market research data. [3]

(b) Explain one benefit to a business of using quota sampling as a method of collecting data. [3]

(b) Explain one disadvantage to a business of using price discrimination. [3]

(b) Explain one benefit to a business of flow production as a method of operation. [3]

(b) Explain one benefit to a business of using equity finance. [3]

(b) Explain one benefit to a business of using venture capitalist[3]

(b) Briefly explain two reasons why cost information is useful for monitoring the financial performance of a business. [3]

5 marks Paper 1

Analyse one way in which the triple bottom line may influence the activities of a business. [5]

Analyse how the interests of one stakeholder groups could affect the decisions of a business. [5]

Analyse one benefit of using internal sources of finance for business growth. [5]


(a) Analysis 8 marks Paper 1

(a) Analyse the impact of social enterprises on the development of a country. [8]

(a) Analyse two benefits of a labour-intensive production process for a business. [8]

(a) Analyse two possible problems that a new business might experience when trying to raise finance. [8]

(b) Discuss 12 marks Paper 1

(b) (b) “Shareholders of a public limited company will always prioritise profits over business ethics”. Evaluate this view.                                                                                                                  [12]

.(b) Evaluate the view that a public limited company should prioritise the aims of its shareholders rather than those of other stakeholder groups. [12] [1

“Technology is the most important factor in the successful operation of Just-in-time (JIT) inventory management” Evaluate this view [12]

(b) “Promotion is the most important element of the marketing mix for an internet banking service” Evaluate this view. [12]


(a)(i) 1 marks Paper 2

(a) (ii) Identify one indirect cost [1]

(a)(ii) 3 marks Paper 2

Explain the term ‘industrial markets’ . [3]

Explain the term ‘brand’ . [3]

(b)(i) 2 marks Paper 2

b (i) Refer to Table 1.1. Calculate the rate of labour turnover for department A in 2020. [3]

(b) (i) Refer to Fig. 1.1. Calculate the number of shoppers who would like to see a Mexican style café in the capital city mall. [3]

(b) (i) Refer to Table 1. Calculate BIG’s working capital. [3]

b (i) Calculate the profit AA will make from production line A if it sorts, packages and sells 140 000 avocados in a month.

b (i) Refer to Table 1.1. Calculate the value of X. [3]

(b)(ii) 3 marks Paper 2

b (ii) Explain one suitable way, other than market share, to measure the size of F5G. [3]

b (ii) Explain one disadvantage for RHZ of having high labour turnover. [3]

(b) (ii) Explain one factor influencing the supply of the retro cycle.[3]

(b)(ii)Explain one benefit of Nativity Trees marketing its products to industrial markets [3]

b (ii) Explain one way in which EMB can use the Internet to increase sales. [3]

b (ii) Explain one benefit of NT holding inventory. [3]

(b)(ii) Explain one internal source of finance available to F5G to finance a new marketing campaign. [3]

(b) (ii) Explain one reason why AA needs accurate cost data.  [3]

b (ii) Explain one reason why EMB’s liquidity is forecast to change. [3]

(c) Analysis 8 marks Paper 2

(c) Analyse two qualities that Gordon will need to be a successful entrepreneur. [8]

(c) Analyse one method of primary market research and one source of secondary market research that the Marketing Director could use to help develop a new variety of natural yogurt. [8]

(c) Analyse two methods HC could use to extend the product life cycle of the Retro Cycle. [8]

c) Analyse two promotional methods F5G could use to gain new customers. [8]

(c) Analyse two ways in which AA adds value to its products. [8]

(c)  Analyse one internal source of finance and one external source of finance Gordon could use to finance his start-up costs. [8]

(d) Evaluation Paper 2

(d) Evaluate the likely impacts on the local community if EFF changes from a co-operative to public limited company. [12]

(d) Evaluate the likely impact on the stakeholders of AA of the planned expansion. [12]​

(d) Evaluate which of Mintzberg’s management roles is likely to be the most important for the new Managing Director of NT. Justify your recommendation. [12]

(d) Evaluate the likely impact on the morale and welfare of HC’s employees if the Retro Cycle is produced using mass customisation [12]

d) Evaluate changes EMB could make to its marketing mix to achieve its growth objective [12]


8 marks

Analyse two possible limitations to Fusion Sushi of outsourcing delivery from their restaurants. [8]

Analyse two possible benefits to FS of continuing with a centralised structure as the business develops. [8]

Analyse one advantage and one disadvantage to BFS of the government of country Z encouraging international trade with other countries [8]

Analyse two advantages to BFS of producing high quality solar panels? [8]

12 Marks

Evaluate whether FS should, in order to increase profits, reduce the price of meals or increase promotional expenditure.[12]

  Evaluate whether the sushi stall project is likely to improve profitability for FS [12]

 Evaluate whether potential investors should purchase shares in BFS. (12)

Evaluate the effectiveness of BFS’s approach to human resource management (HRM).[12]

Evaluate whether BFS should subcontract the production of solar panels to solve the problem of insufficient capacity [12]

Paper 4

20 Marks

6. Advise E-Ventures on which strategic analysis technique(s) should be use to develop future growth strategies for E Ventures. [20]     

 Evaluate how business planning can improve E-Ventures future profitability. [20]


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Past Paper Business Exam Guide